European National Policies Series – Spain and Central Asia

Central Asia holds a complicated place in Spanish foreign policy. Considering Spain’s low profile both in Asia and Eastern Europe, there is a striking fluidity in relations with Kazakhstan...

European National Policies Series – Portugal and Central Asia

Portuguese relations with Central Asia are naturally perceived as marginal. Although bilateral relations have developed since the mid 2000s, Portugal for the most part follows the trend set by...

European National Policies Series – Denmark and Central Asia

Denmark has in recent years enhanced its political and economic ties to Central Asian states. Political and economic interests drive Denmark’s enhanced political attention to the region, which ultimately...

European National Policies Series – The Netherlands and Central Asia

The Netherlands increasingly acknow-ledges the vital geostrategic importance of the Central Asian region and has adopted a multidimensional approach that reflects this standpoint. Dutch political and security relations with...

European National Policies Series – The South Caucasus and Central Asia

Twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the countries of the South Caucasus and Central Asia have developed relations within multilateral regional organisations as well as on...

European National Policies Series – Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Relations between Central Asia and the post-Soviet countries of Eastern Europe have largely been developed in the shadow of Russia. Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine have established ties through integration...

Mongolia’s Quest for Third Neighbours. Why the European Union?

Mongolia is beginning to attract more interest from European organisations and institutions. A Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between Mongolia and the European Union is expected to be concluded...

European National Policies Series – Italy and Central Asia

The Italian government has had diplomatic and political ties with post-Soviet republics since 1991. But like many other EU countries, following 11 September 2001, Italy has developed deeper relations...

European National Policies Series – the UK and Central Asia

UK relations with Central Asian states and the wider region are guided by its commitment to advancing the UK’s prosperity and security interests, underpinned by a values-based approach to...

EU Human Rights and Democratisation Assistance to Central Asia: In Need of Further Reform

Introduction One of the declared priorities of the European Union (EU) in Central Asia is the strengthening of good governance, rule of law, human rights and democratisation. Given the EU’s...